How to Control Calcium Hardness

Maintaining appropriate levels of calcium hardness is a key balance factor in basic recreational water care. Typically, water in a vinyl-lined or fibreglass swimming pool should contain a calcium hardness level of 175 to 225 parts per million (ppm), while the recommended range for plaster-surfaced pools is a little higher at 200 to 275 ppm. In addition, the overall balance … Read More

Battling Biofilm in Pools and Spas

Battling Biofilm in Pools and Spas

Improving water quality demands a true understanding of what is hidden in the pool and spa environment, of what is lurking beneath the surface—in piping, filters and on exteriors. For decades, pool professionals have faced a particularly tricky phenomenon, one that has created havoc since the first swimming pools and spas. It is that slimy, sticky, gooey stuff that appears … Read More

Dealing with Nitrates in Pools and Spas

Dealing with Nitrates in Pools and Spas

When a customer brings in a water sample complaining about an algae problem, pool and spa professionals must ask themselves which chemical parameters to include in the subsequent test. If their answer does not include testing for nitrate nitrogen, they could be ignoring a key factor. In fact, nitrate nitrogen testing should be considered in every situation with a potential … Read More

Differentiating Stains and Determining Treatment

Differentiating Stains and Determining Treatment

Staining is a problem many pool and spa owners will contend with at some point. It is a nuisance that detracts from a pool or spa’s overall aesthetic value and can contribute to surface deterioration. Staining can be prevented; however, the conditions, which ultimately cause it to happen must be recognized first. Once an operator understands the mechanisms causing surface … Read More

Automatic Chlorine Generators

Automatic Chlorine Generators

Ten years ago, less than five per cent of Canadian and U.S. inground pool owners had heard of salt chlorination; fewer still (less than one per cent) had salt chlorination systems installed on their pools. However, in the U.S. today, there are an estimated 1.3 million inground pools equipped with salt systems, comprising 20 per cent of the country’s 5.2 … Read More

The Intricacies of Automated Chemical Controllers

Proper water balance in commercial pools and spas can be the difference between a safe, attractive facility and a disastrous one. Advances in chemical automation, disinfection methods, and better education on the problems associated with water chemistry have made the aquatic facility operator’s job easier when ensuring pool and spa water is safe for bathers. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP)/pH controllers … Read More

Understanding Water Treatment Technologies

Understanding Pool Water Treatment Technologies

All water treatment technologies involve a physical change to the water that they are processing. The nature of the change truly defines the technology. Subtractive treatment The most commonly understood and frequently used type of water treatment technology is subtractive; something is removed from water for health or aesthetic reasons. Contaminants are physically removed from the water using a physical separation or adsorptive process. Within the … Read More

Water Matters: A New Standard for Pool Chemicals

ASAPP Resources: A New Standard for Pool Chemicals

Everyone is familiar with chlorination of swimming pools. This is a long-standing practice that has been used for many years to help improve the safety of swimming pools and reduce the incidence of communicable diseases associated with swimming in them. In recent years, however, there has been a proliferation of new techniques to disinfect and treat swimming pool water to … Read More

Shedding Light on the Common Misconceptions About Chlorine Generators

Ultimately, saltwater chlorine generation is just another method to chlorinate a pool.

To fully understand saltwater pool chemistry one must start by separating fact from fiction, as many misconceptions stem from a lack of knowledge. The most common misunderstanding about saltwater pools is they are fundamentally different and do not use chlorine as a sanitizer. In reality, saltwater pools use a special process to create free available chlorine (FAC), but require similar … Read More